This piece, researched and written by K|N’s Rebecca Kennison, appears as Appendix 1 in this larger work: Association of College and Research Libraries. Open and Equitable Scholarly Communications: Creating a More Inclusive Future. Prepared by Nancy Maron and Rebecca Kennison with Paul Bracke, Nathan Hall, Isaac Gilman, Kara Malenfant, Charlotte Roh, and Yasmeen Shorish. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2019.
What is social justice? It is fairness, justness, and equity in behavior and treatment, specifically in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges. Where diversity and inclusion are about groups, social justice is about systems (Mathuews, 2016).
Putting aside for the moment the sometimes contested terminology of “diversity” and “inclusion” (e.g., Who is being diversified? Is “inclusion” code for white-centricity?), the concepts have deep resonance within the library community (Semenza et al., 2017). As our survey revealed, while other forms of social justice were not considered as crucial, diversity and inclusion received a resounding response: 138 of 365 respondents (37.81%) considered diversity and inclusion an urgent issue, and another 161 (44.11%) considered this issue very important. We saw a similar response on the question of retention and promotion, particularly of underrepresented minorities: 127 out of 365 (34.79%) considered the question urgent, and 138 out of 365 (37.81%) considered it very important. Diversity and inclusion efforts have been organizational priorities for ALA and ARL, among others (see, e.g., American Library Association, 2012; Anaya and Maxey-Harris, 2017; Society of College, National, and University Libraries, 2018). Despite such efforts, much more needs to be done (Swanson et al., 2015; Vinopal, 2016).
As Toni Anaya and Charlene Maxey-Harris (2017) pointed out in the most recent ARL SPEC Kit on diversity and inclusion, both terms cover not only race and ethnicity, but also include “gender, sexual orientation, ability, language, religious belief, national origin, age, and ideas,” yet two pressing personnel issues concern primarily librarians of color. The first issue relates to hiring, retaining, and promoting of librarians of color. Lack of diversity in this area is a problem found in academic libraries of all kinds, as well as across the broader scholarly communications system, including academic publishing. Its roots can be found in a lack of diversity within LIS schools among both faculty and students (see, e.g., Anaya and Maxey-Harris, 2017; Kim and Sin, 2008; Subramaniam and Jaeger, 2010). Specific strategies, such as diversity scholarships and resident librarian programs, have been uneven in their success unless coupled with training and opportunities to advance (see, e.g., Anaya and Maxey-Harris, 2017; Fontenot, 2010; Freeman, 2014; Hathcock, 2015; Henry et al., 2015; Kumaran, 2015; Lyon et al., 2011; Pickens and Coren, 2017; Schonfeld and Sweeney, 2017). In particular, most academic libraries have not done well in allowing librarians from underrepresented groups to embrace their social identities within their professional lives (Andrews, 2018; Downing, 2009; Puente, 2010). The second concern is the lack of engagement of librarians of color in any kind of research agenda. Research opportunities are often curtailed for scholars of color, and this reality that has not much changed despite decades of diversity efforts (Alabi, 2015; Chou and Pho, 2017; Damasco and Hodges, 2012; Riley-Reid, 2017; Thornton, 2001). These fundamental systemic inequalities must be successfully addressed before academic libraries can become a model for a more open, inclusive, and equitable research and scholarly communications system.
Issues of social justice are not related only to hiring and personnel practices; they touch on each of the areas of the scholarly communications workflow: creation, production, credentialing, sharing, and preservation. It is a broader area than diversity and inclusion or even equity when it comes to race and ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, language and geography, or disability. The concept of social justice covers a broad range of issues, including, for example, the challenges of the global digital divide and information inequality, decolonization, democratization, empowerment and social responsibility, equality, ethics and moral responsibility, fairness, financial opportunities available only to some, the fundamental human right to communicate, intellectual freedom, openness to contributions from participants at all levels of society, the politics of technology, privilege (or lack thereof) of all kinds, the public or common good, the reliance of the entire system on “invisible” labor, transparency and accountability, unbiased policymaking — and so much more.
Not surprisingly, openness of all kinds plays a crucial (and sometimes complicated) role in discussions of social justice. (For a range of views, see Alexander et al., 2016; Baker, 2009; Cohen et al., 2013; Crissinger, 2017; Cruz and Fleming, 2015; Ford, 2017; Gilman, 2015; Glushko and Shoyama, 2015; Heller and Gaede, 2016; Inefuku, 2017; Jones, 2010; Neylon, 2017; Padilla and Steeves, 2018; Peters, 2013; Salaz et al., 2018; Scherlen and Robinson, 2008; Veletsianos and Kimmons, 2012). But, cautions Audrey Watters (2014), “open” can mean almost anything, depending on who is using the word:
Does “open” mean openly licensed content or code? And, again, which license is really “open”? Does “open” mean “made public”? Does “open” mean shared? Does “open” mean “accessible”? Accessible how? To whom? Does “open” mean editable? Negotiable? Does “open” mean “free”? Does “open” mean “open-ended”? Does “open” mean transparent? Does “open” mean “open-minded”? “Open” to new ideas and to intellectual exchange? Open to interpretation? Does “open” mean open to participation—by everyone equally? Open doors? Open opportunity? Open to suggestion? Or does it mean “open for business”?
As Nora Almeida (2017) notes, “Ideologically, openness is intimately tied up with social justice and the assumption that the internet and higher education are in the business of fixing social disparities.” In practicality, however, often those who engage in open scholarship, embedded as it is in an unjust system, are ripe for exploitation. Not all who participate in the commons do so on an equal footing, observe George Veletsianos and Royce Kimmons (2012):
In the case of open scholarship, issues surrounding the provision of MOOCs, use of open access journals, accessibility and use of OER, participation in scholarly networks, and use of social media by diverse audiences will arise and should be a matter of concern for participants when considering who profits from, and can efficiently and practically use, their collaborative or shared work. As a simple example of this issue, while we can advocate that individuals should publish in OA journals or that they should use social media in their professional practice, we must recognize that if we engage professionally with these practices ourselves, our advocacy [as white men] comes from a position of power and we might be better positioned to benefit from these practices than others whose individual circumstances prevent them from fully adopting such practices.
Similarly, Almeida (2017) argues that openness (in all its aspects) is not a magic solution — perhaps far from it. What she says about open educational resources can just as easily be said about other “open” efforts as well: “OER do have value … [but] OER can also lead to the exploitation of knowledge producers, can reinforce a Western-centric perspective that leads to forms of educational colonialism, can confuse autonomy for liberty, and can privilege a neoliberal formulation of education that precludes real social change.” Or, to return to Watters (2014), “What are we going to do when we recognize that ‘open’ is not enough. I hope that we recognize that what we need is social justice. We need politics, not simply a license. We need politics, not simply technology solutions. We need an ethics of care, of justice, not simply assume that ‘open’ does the work of those for us.”
While “openness” plays a large role in all discussions of social justice, concerns about social justice within the research environment and scholarly communications cover all aspects of the scholarly communications workflow and (crucially!) all the people involved in the process, no matter what role they play. Some of the issues raised in the literature, as well as (in various ways) in our focus groups and survey, are these, listed here in alphabetical order:
- breadth (and limitations) of collections and their impact on knowledge creation and production (Bear, 2014; Ciszek and Young, 2010; de jesus, 2014; Inefuku and Roh, 2016; Mathuews, 2016; Mbembe, 2015; Welburn, 2010);
- commitment to high ethical standards, understanding that all aspects of scholarly communications affect real people and real lives (Padilla and Steeves, 2018);
- complications around intellectual property (Almeida, 2017; Association of European Research Libraries, 2014; de jesus, 2014; Lor and Britz, 2005);
- digital literacy and information literacy as crucial decision-making tools for administrators, faculty, and students to enhance scholarly communications social justice efforts (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2013; Davis-Kahl et al., 2014; Koltay et al., 2015; Ogburn et al., 2018; Roh, 2017; Ryan and Sloniowski, 2013; Sutton, 2013; Swygart-Hobaugh, 2013; Tewell, 2015);
- discrimination and harassment (online and offline) faced by scholars of color and gender minorities that can adversely affect their publishing practices and subsequent credentialing and curtail their public scholarship (see, e.g., Matthew, 2016);
- exploitation of knowledge producers and the modes and mechanisms of knowledge production (Almeida, 2017; Duffy and Pooley, 2017; Kansa, 2014);
- the global digital divide (and other forms of information inequality) placing limitations on the human right to communicate (Baker, 2009; Birdsall, 2011; Inefuku, 2017; Marrall, 2014; Yu, 2011);
- lack of recognition of and reward mechanisms for what is often “invisible” labor, especially by scholars of color and contingent faculty (Almeida, 2017; de jesus, 2014; Roh et al., 2016);
- legacy platforms and tools that reinscribe and reinforce bias (Roh, 2018);
- limitations on equity throughout the entire scholarly communications process that go well beyond access to full participation in the research and publishing process (Czernowicz, 2013; Greco et al., 2016; Library Publishing Coalition, 2018; Raju, 2018; Sondervan and Fitzpatrick, 2018);
- the need for ample funding for numerous projects, not just those that (for whatever reason) garner attention (Kansa, 2014);
- the need to abandon the fiction of neutrality while still maintaining objectivity (Baildon et al., 2017; Bourg, 2015; de jesus, 2014; Gilliland, 2011; Jimerson, 2007);
- the neoliberalism at the heart of the current scholarly communications system, including open access (Baildon et al., 2017; de jesus, 2014; Hathcock, 2016; Kansa, 2014; Kember, 2014; Lawson et al., 2015; Neylon, 2017);
- the opacity of the role of machines within the system (Alexander et al., 2016; Fleischmann, 2007; Manoff, 2015);
- the primacy of English (especially “proper” academic English) for determinations of quality, discoverability, citationality, and so on (Inefuku, 2017; Library Publishing Coalition, 2018; Roh, 2018);
- problematic word choices and terminology (see, e.g., Norris, 2014);
- technical systems and platforms that privilege some users over others (Gil, 2015; Padilla and Steeves, 2018);
- tensions between academic freedom and protection of vulnerable populations (Dreyfuss and Ryan, 2016; Pearson and Lowry, 2000); and
- the whiteness of the academy and (even more so) of scholarly communications and limitations of the white-centric “monocultural” experience, especially in decision-making as to resource allocation, priorities, and selection processes (e.g., people, content, materials, collections, services) (Brook et al., 2015; Buschsbaum, 2009; de jesus, 2014; Greco et al., 2016; Hathcock, 2016; Inefuku and Roh, 2016; Mbembe, 2015; Society for Scholarly Publishing, 2018; Roh, 2018; Tuhiwai Smith, 2015).
Many of these issues are raised in more depth in the three areas we highlight in the new ACRL research agenda: people, content, and systems. Social justice, while offering a smorgasbord of areas of inquiry, is certainly fertile ground for future research. In this research agenda, our focus has been on the spaces where scholarly communications and the research environment cross paths with, or are otherwise affected by, issues of social justice.
Alabi, Jaena. “To Be Seen and Heard: Realizing the Benefits of Diversity and Responding to the Needs of Minority Academic Librarians.” Mississippi Library Association Annual Conference, Natchez, MS, October 21, 2015.
Alexander, Bryan, Kim Barrett, Sioux Cumming, Patrick Herron, Claudia Holland, Kathleen Keane, Joyce Ogburn, Jacob Orlowitz, Mary Augusta Thomas, and Jeffrey Tsao. “Report from the Information Overload and Underload Workgroup.” Open Scholarship Initiative Proceedings 1 (2016): G8R30G.
Almeida, Nora. “Open Educational Resources and Rhetorical Paradox in the Neoliberal Univers(ity).” Journal of Critical Library and Information Studies 1, no. 1 (2017): article 16.
American Library Association. “Diversity Counts: 2009–2010 Update.” September 18, 2012.
Anaya, Toni, and Charlene Maxey-Harris. Diversity and Inclusion: SPEC Kit 356. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries, 2017.
Andrews, Nicola. “Reflections on Resistance, Decolonization, and the Historical Trauma of Libraries and Academia,” in The Politics of Theory and the Practice of Critical Librarianship, ed. Karen P. Nicholson and Maura Seale, 181–92. Sacramento: Library Juice Press, 2018.
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Working Group on Intersections of Scholarly Communication and Information Literacy. Intersections of Scholarly Communication and Information Literacy: Creating Strategic Collaborations for a Changing Academic Environment. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2013.
Association of European Research Libraries (LIBER). The Hague Declaration, December 10, 2014.
Baildon, Michelle, Dana Hamlin, Czeslaw Jankowski, Rhonda Kauffman, Julia Lanigan, Michelle Miller, Jessica Venlet, and Ann Marie Willer. “Creating a Social Justice Mindset: Diversity, Inclusion, and Social Justice in the Collections Directorate of the MIT Libraries,” Collections Directorate of the MIT Libraries, February 9, 2017.
Baker, Matthew. “Be Creative, Determined, and Wise: Open Library Publishing and the Global South.” Computers in Libraries 29, no. 10 (2009): 6–10.
Bear, Suzy. “Building Libraries One Book at a Time,” in Aboriginal and Visible Minority Librarians: Oral Histories from Canada, ed. Deborah Lee and Mahalakshmi Kumaran, 1–16. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2014.
Birdsall, William F. “Human Capabilities and Information and Communication Technology: The Communicative Connection.” Ethics and Information Technology 13, no. 2 (2011): 93–106.
Bourg, Chris. “Never Neutral: Libraries, Technology, and Inclusion.” Feral Librarian (blog), January 28, 2015.
Brook, Freeda, Dave Ellenwood, and Althea Eannace Lazzaro. “In Pursuit of Antiracist Social Justice: Denaturalizing Whiteness in the Academic Library.” Library Trends 64, no. 2 (2015): 246–84.
Buschsbaum, Julianne. “Academic Libraries and the Remaking of the Canon: Implications for Collection Development Librarians.” Library Philosophy and Practice (2009): article 266.
Chou, Rose L., and Annie Pho. “Intersectionality at the Reference Desk: Lived Experiences of Women of Color Librarians,” in The Feminist Reference Desk: Concepts, Critiques, and Conversations, ed. Maria T. Accardi, 225–52. Sacramento: Library Juice Press, 2017.
Ciszek, Matthew P., and Courtney L. Young. “Diversity Collection Assessment in Large Academic Libraries.” Collection Building 29, no. 4 (2010): 154–61.
Cohen, Madeline, Maura A. Smale, Jill Cirasella, Cynthia Tobar, and Jessie Daniels. “Speaking as One: Supporting Open Access with Departmental Resolutions.” Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 2, no. 1 (2013): eP1099.
Crissinger, Sarah. “Access to Research and Sci-Hub: Creating Opportunities for Campus Conversations on Open Access and Ethics.” College and Research Libraries News 78, no. 2 (2017): 86–95.
Cruz, Laura. and Rachel Fleming. “Partnerships: The Engaged University and Library Publishing.” OCLC Systems and Services 31, no. 4 (2015): 196–203.
Czernowicz, Laura. “Inequitable Power Dynamics of Global Knowledge Production and Exchange Must Be Confronted Head On.” LSE Impact Blog, April 29, 2013.
Damasco, Ione T., and Dracine Hodges. “Tenure and Promotion Experiences of Academic Librarians of Color.” College and Research Libraries 73, no. 3 (2012): 279–301.
Davis-Kahl, Stephanie, Teresa A. Fishel, and Merinda Kaye Hensley. “Weaving the Threads: Scholarly Communication and Information Literacy.” College and Research Libraries News 75, no. 8 (2014): 441–44.
Downing, Karen E. “The Relationship between Social Identity and Role Performance among Academic Librarians” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 2009).
de jesus, nina. “Locating the Library within Institutional Oppression.” In the Library with the Lead Pipe, September 24, 2014.
Dreyfuss, Sara, and Marianne Ryan. “Academic Freedom: The Continuing Challenge.” portal: Libraries and the Academy 16, no. 1 (2016): 1–9.
Duffy, Brooke Erin, and Jefferson D. Pooley. “‘Facebook for Academics’: The Convergence of Self-Branding and Social Media Logic on Academia.edu.” Social Media and Society 3, no. 1 (2017): 1–11.
Fleischmann, Kenneth R. “Digital Libraries with Embedded Values: Combining Insights from LIS and Science and Technology Studies.” Library Quarterly 77, no. 4 (2007): 409–27.
Fontenot, Mitch. “Diversity: A Task Force: Survey of the Literature and Some Possible Trends for Academic Libraries.” Louisiana Libraries 73, no. 1 (2010): 8–11.
Ford, Emily. “Advancing an Open Ethos with Open Peer Review.” College and Research Libraries 78, no. 4 (2017): 406–12.
Freeman, Rodney E. “A Snapshot of Indiana’s Librarians Leading in Diversity Fellowship Participants after the Program Has Concluded.” Indiana Libraries 33, no. 1 (2014): 12–15.
Gil, Alex. “The User, the Learner and the Machines We Make.” Minimal Computing, May 21, 2015.
Gilliland, Anne. “Neutrality, Social Justice and the Obligations of Archival Education and Educators in the Twenty-First Century.” Archival Science 11, no. 3–4 (2011): 193–209.
Gilman, Isaac. “Responsibilities and Rights: Balancing the Institutional Imperative for Open Access with Authors’ Self-Determination,” in Making Institutional Repositories Work, ed. Burton B. Callicott, David Scherer, and Andrew Wesolek, 69–85. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 2015.
Glushko, Bobby, and Rex Shoyama, “Unpacking Open Access: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Open Access Initiatives.” Feliciter 61, no. 1 (2015): 8–11.
Greco, Albert N., Robert M. Wharton, and Amy Brand, “Demographics of Scholarly Publishing and Communication Professionals.” Learned Publishing 29, no. 2 (2016): 97–101.
Hathcock, April. “Making the Local Global: The Colonialism of Scholarly Communication.” At the Intersection (blog), September 27, 2016.
Hathcock, April. “White Librarianship in Blackface: Diversity Initiatives in LIS.” In the Library with the Lead Pipe, October 7, 2015.
Heller, Margaret, and Franny Gaede. “Measuring Altruistic Impact: A Model for Understanding the Social Justice of Open Access.” Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 4 (2016): eP2132.
Henry, Eboni M., Eileen K. Bosch, Karen Quash, Leslie K. Griffin, Mario Ascencio, Monica Lopez, and Ray Pun. “Librarians of Color: The Challenges of ‘Movin’ On Up’ (Part II).” American Library Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 27, 2015.
Inefuku, Harrison W. “Globalization, Open Access, and the Democratization of Knowledge.” EDUCAUSE Review, July/August 2017: 62–63.
Inefuku, Harrison W., and Charlotte Roh, “Agents of Diversity and Social Justice: Librarians and Scholarly Communication,” in Open Access and the Future of Scholarly Communication: Policy and Infrastructure, ed. Kevin L. Smith and Katherine A. Dickson, 107–27. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016.
Jimerson, Randall C. “Archives for All: Professional Responsibility and Social Justice.” American Archivist 70, no. 2 (2007): 252–81.
Jones, Paul. “Digital Labour in the Academic Context: Challenges for Academic Staff Associations.” Ephemera 10, no. 3/4 (2010): 537–39.
Kansa, Eric. “It’s the Neoliberalism, Stupid: Why Instrumentalist Arguments for Open Access, Open Data, and Open Science Are Not Enough.” LSE Impact Blog, January 14, 2014.
Kember, Sarah. “Opening Out from Open Access: Writing and Publishing in Response to Neoliberalism.” Ada: A Journal of Gender, New Media, and Technology, no. 4 (2014): article N31C1V51.
Kim, Kyung-Sun, and Sei-Ching Joanna Sin. “Increasing Ethnic Diversity in LIS: Strategies Suggested by Librarians of Color.” Library Quarterly 78, no. 2 (2008): 153–77.
Koltay, Tibor, Sonja Špiranec, and László Z. Karvalics. “The Shift of Information Literacy towards Research 2.0.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 41, no. 1 (2015): 87–93.
Kumaran, Maha. “Succession Planning Process That Includes Visible Minority Librarians.” Library Management 36, no. 6–7 (2015): 434–47.
Lawson, Stuart, Kevin Sanders, and Lauren Smith. “Commodification of the Information Profession: A Critique of Higher Education under Neoliberalism.” Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 3, no. 1 (2015): eP1182.
Library Publishing Coalition. “An Ethical Framework for Library Publishing,” ver. 1.0. San Francisco: Educopia, 2018.
Lor, Peter Johan, and Johannes Britz. “Knowledge Production from an African Perspective: International Information Flows and Intellectual Property.” International Information and Library Review 37, no. 2 (2005): 61–76.
Lyon, Becky J., Kathel Dunn, and Sally Sinn, “Leveraging Partnerships to Develop a Strong and Diverse Workforce.” Journal of Library Administration 51, no. 2 (2011): 231–41.
Manoff, Marlene. “Human and Machine Entanglement in the Digital Archive: Academic Libraries and Socio-technical Change.” portal: Libraries and the Academy 15, no. 3 (2015): 513–30.
Marrall, Rebecca M. “Teaching the Digital Divide: Connecting Students to Community, Knowledge, and Service Learning.” Library Philosophy and Practice (June 2014): article 1126.
Mathuews, Katy. “Moving beyond Diversity to Social Justice: A Call to Action for Academic Libraries.” Progressive Librarian 44 (2016): 6–27.
Matthew, Patricia A. “Tweeting Diversity: Race and Tenure in the Age of Social Media,” in Written/Unwritten: Diversity and the Hidden Truths of Tenure, ed. Patricia A. Matthew, 241–60. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016.
Mbembe, Achille. “Decolonizing Knowledge and the Question of the Archive.” Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, May 2, 2015.
Neylon, Cameron. “Openness in Scholarship: A Return to Core Values?” in Expanding Perspectives on Open Science: Communities, Cultures and Diversity in Concepts and Practices, ed. Leslie Chan and Fernando Loizides, 6–17. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017.
Norris, Timothy. “Morality in Information Ecosystems.” CLIR Connect (blog), Council on Library and Information Resources, September 18, 2014.
Ogburn, Joyce, Allegra Swift, and Emma Molls. “Scholarly Communication in the Context of Digital Literacy: Navigation and Decision Making in a Complex Landscape.” University of San Diego Digital Initiatives Symposium, San Diego, CA, April 24, 2018.
Padilla, Thomas, and Vicky Steeves. “Data Librarianship: A Path and an Ethic.” Data Praxis (blog), dh+lib, April 4, 2018.
Pearson, George, and Heidi Lowry. “Hating Hate Speech: Debating Freedom and Tolerance in the Chicago IFRT Program.” Intellectual Freedom Round Table Report 46, no. 2 (2000): 1–3.
Peters, Michael A. “Managerialism and the Neoliberal University: Prospects for New Forms of ‘Open Management’ in Higher Education.” Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice 5, no. 1 (2013): 11–26.
Pickens, Chanelle, and Ashleigh D. Coren. “Diversity Residency Programs: Strategies for a Collaborative Approach to Development.” Collaborative Librarianship 9, no. 2 (2017): 104–8.
Puente, Mark A. “Developing a Vital Research Library Workforce.” Research Library Issues, no. 272 (October 2010): 1–6.
Raju, Reggie. “Predatory Publishing from a Global South Perspective.” Library Publishing Coalition Blog, February 7, 2018.
Riley-Reid, Trevar. “Breaking Down Barriers: Making It Easier for Academic Librarians of Color to Stay.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 43, no. 5 (2017): 392–96.
Roh, Charlotte. “Scholarly Communication in a Time of Change: Considering the Impact of Bias, Diversity, and Traditional Publishing Structures as Scholarly Communication Moves to New Platforms and Systems.” California Academic and Research Libraries Conference: Academic Libraries in Times of Change, Redwood City, CA, April 14, 2018.
Roh, Charlotte. “Scholarly Publishing, Information Literacy, and Social Justice.” University of San Diego Digital Initiatives Symposium, San Diego, CA, May 2, 2017.
Roh, Charlotte, Emily Drabinski, and Harrison W. Inefuku. “Scholarly Communication as a Tool for Social Justice and Diversity.” National Diversity in Libraries Conference, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, August 12, 2016.
Ryan, Patti, and Lisa Sloniowski, “The Public Academic Library: Friction in the Teflon Funnel,” in Information Literacy and Social Justice: Radical Professional Praxis, ed. Shana Higgins and Lua Gregory, 275–96. Sacramento: Library Juice Press, 2013.
Salaz, A. M., Nicole Johnston, and Clare Pickles. “Faculty Members Who Teach Online: A Phenomenographic Typology of Open Access Experiences.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 44, no. 1 (2018): 125–32.
Scherlen, Allan, and Matthew Robinson. “Open Access to Criminal Justice Scholarship: A Matter of Social Justice.” Journal of Criminal Justice Education 19, no. 1 (2008): 54–74.
Schonfeld, Roger C., and Liam Sweeney. Inclusion, Diversity, and Equity: Members of the Association of Research Libraries: Employee Demographics and Director Perspectives. New York: Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 2017.
Semenza, Jenny Lynne, Regina Koury, and Sandra Shropshire. “Diversity at Work in Academic Libraries, 2010–2015: An Annotated Bibliography.” Collection Building 36, no. 3 (2017): 89–95.
Society for Scholarly Publishing. “On Being Excluded: Testimonies by People of Color in Scholarly Publishing.” The Scholarly Kitchen (blog), April 4, 2018.
Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL). Research Project: BAME Staff Experiences of Academic Libraries. London: SCONUL, May 17, 2018.
Sondervan, Jeroen, and Kathleen Fitzpatrick, “Interview: Kathleen Fitzpatrick on Open Scholarship, Humanities Commons, and More.” Open Access in Media Studies, April 19, 2018.
Subramaniam, Mega, and Paul T. Jaeger. “Modeling Inclusive Practice? Attracting Diverse Faculty and Future Faculty to the Information Workforce.” Library Trends 59, no. 1–2 (2010): 109–27.
Sutton, Shan C. “Time to Step on the Gas in Approaching the Intersections of Scholarly Communication and Information Literacy.” Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication 1, no. 3 (2013): eP1076.
Swanson, Juleah, Ione Damasco, Isabel Gonzalez-Smith, Dracine Hodges, Todd Honma, and Azusa Tanaka, 2015. “Why Diversity Matters: A Roundtable Discussion on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Librarianship.” In the Library with the Lead Pipe, July 29, 2015.
Swygart-Hobaugh, Amanda J. “Information—Power to the People: Students and Librarians Dialoguing about Power, Social Justice, and Information,” in Information Literacy and Social Justice: Radical Professional Praxis, ed. Shana Higgins and Lua Gregory, 219–46. Sacramento: Library Juice Press, 2013).
Tewell, Eamon. “A Decade of Critical Information Literacy: A Review of the Literature.” Communications in Information Literacy 9, no. 1 (2015): 24–43.
Thornton, Joyce K. “African American Female Librarians: A Study of Job Satisfaction.” Journal of Library Administration 33, no. 1–2 (2001): 141–64.
Tuhiwai Smith, Linda. “Decolonizing Knowledge: Toward a Critical Indigenous Research Justice Praxis,” in Research Justice: Methodologies for Social Change, ed. Andrew J. Jolivétte, 205–11. Bristol, UK: Policy Press, 2015.
Veletsianos, George, and Royce Kimmons. “Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship.” International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 13, no. 4 (2012): 166–89.
Vinopal, Jennifer. “The Quest for Diversity in Library Staffing: From Awareness to Action.” In the Library with the Lead Pipe, January 13, 2016.
Watters, Audrey. “From ‘Open’ to Justice.” OpenCon 2014, American University Washington College of Law, Washington, DC, November 16, 2014.
Welburn, William C. “Creating Inclusive Communities: Diversity and the Responses of Academic Libraries.” portal: Libraries and the Academy 10, no. 3 (2010): 355–63.
Yu, Liangzhi. “The Divided Views of the Information and Digital Divides: A Call for Integrative Theories of Information Inequality.” Journal of Information Science 37, no. 6 (2011): 660–79.